FILTERING OUT BIOTERRORISM
27 Nov 2002
Source: Baltimore Sun, June 20, 2002.
Filtering out bioterrorism
Invention: A Hopkins scientist has early success with his device, designed to remove anthrax spores, viruses and bacteria from the air.
By Jason Song, Sun Staff
The first place Richard S. Potember went in his quest to kill anthrax was to the dump.
The chemist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel had mapped a system that could fit in an air conditioner or heater and that would destroy anthrax spores, viruses and bacteria in building vents.
Rather than buy a new air conditioner or heater, Potember rooted through the back of an air-conditioning store until he found a dirty, broken heating unit that fit his needs.
"Why build something expensive when you can find something cheap?" he said.
Early results show that Potember's invention, which eliminates foreign objects with ozone and ultraviolet light, has the potential to kill 100 percent of the viruses and bacteria that a terrorist might dump into a building vent.
The machine also kills or filters out more than 99 percent of spores that resemble anthrax in early tests.
Now Potember is preparing to move into a new lab modeled after an office building to test his machine in a real-world environment. If that research goes well, the device could be available commercially within a year and fill a gaping hole in homeland security.
Although he is not aware of the specifics of Potember's project, Bruce Clements, the associate director of the Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infections at St. Louis University, says technology that protects against airborne threats is "absolutely critical and needs to be developed, especially for high-risk buildings."
Potember began working on the project nearly a year ago with three objectives: He wanted the system to be simple, lethal and cheap.
"If it's supposed to protect the public, regular people have to be able to use it," he said.
A self-professed tinkerer who will strip down his old toasters for spare parts, Potember began fiddling in his lab amid piles of screws, discarded machines and charts.
"Some scientists need to be behind a desk, writing code," he said, standing in the middle of the cramped space that looks more like a pack rat's garage than a high-tech lab. "I need to be in the lab."
After several months of planning and building, Potember came up with a device that is made entirely from commercially available materials and is relatively straightforward.
Air runs through a filter before entering a chamber, where it is doused with ozone, high intensity UV light and water, a combination that has proved effective in early testing.
Although ozone is toxic, it has a relatively short life span and decays into oxygen within 30 minutes.
Potember estimates that it would cost $5,000 to assemble a machine, although that could rise or fall depending on the size of the structure it serves.
Despite his advances, Potember worked in relative anonymity until fall. But when anthrax was discovered in post offices and government buildings, the frightening incidents showed how simple it is to distribute the deadly spores. Many security experts speculated about how easy it would be for a terrorist to dump biological weapons into building vents, where they would be circulated.
Potember was inundated with calls from air-conditioning contractors and others who were aware of his work because of earlier research contacts.
The anthrax attacks "showed that [more effective] technology had to be developed," said Kevin Holland, a spokesman for the 4,000-member Air Conditioning Contractors of America.
Now officials at the Hopkins lab hope Potember will prove to be the man with the answer. Because of the attention on bioterrorism, lab managers have put his project on the fast track.
Potember will be moving his experiment into a lab with a ventilation system to see if the system works on a larger scale. The lab is also equipped with three office cubicles so Potember can see how particles are distributed.
Potember applied for a patent on his device in February, and lab officials are negotiating with a number of companies who might manufacture the devices to market commercially.
"It looks like it's a real killer [of spores and viruses] and it's not expensive, so all those things together make it pretty darn interesting," said John Bacon, a manager for technology transfer at the lab.
Although much of the push behind the machine is based on its potential to fight bioterrorism, Potember and others believe it also could play an important role in hospitals by cutting down on potentially deadly airborne diseases.
While workers put the finishing touches on Potember's lab, he is eagerly awaiting a chance to put his machine to the test. Walking through the room, he put his hand on a duct and said with a smile: "It's time to see what this thing can really do."