RAPID SURVEY REFERENCES - BY TOPIC



 



The surveys listed here are cluster surveys, but do not necessarily use the correct statistical formulas for their analysis, as to actual "rapid surveys." For details on correct formulas, see Rapid Survey Course.

ANEMIA

  Schellenberg D, Schellenberg JR, Mushi A, Savigny D, Mgalula L, Mbuya C, Victora CG. The silent burden of anaemia in Tanzanian children: a community-based study. Bull World Health Organ 81(8), 581-90, 2003.

ANTIMICROBIAL USE

  Bartoloni A, Cutts F, Leoni S, Austin CC, Mantella A, Guglielmetti P, Roselli M, Salazar E, and Paradisi F. Patterns of antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance among healthy children in Bolivia. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1998 Feb, 3(2):116-23.

BACK PAIN

  Hoy D, Toole MJ, Morgan D, Morgan C. Low back pain in rural Tibet. Lancet 361(9353), 225-6, 2003.

BEDNETS

  Grabowsky M, Nobiya T, Ahun M, Donna R, Lengor M, Zimmerman D, Ladd H, Hoekstra E, Bello A, Baffoe-Wilmot A, Amofah G. Distributing insecticide-treated bednets during measles vaccination: a low-cost means of achieving high and equitable coverage. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 83(3): 195-201, 2005.

BLINDNESS AND EYE CONDITIONS

  Bourne RR, Dineen BP, Ali SM, Noorul Huq DM, Johnson GJ. Prevalence of refractive error in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh. Ophthalmology 111(6), 1150-60, 2004.

  Dunzhu S, Wang FS, Courtright P, Liu L, Tenzing C, Noertjojo K, Wilkie A, Santangelo M, Bassett KL. Blindness and eye diseases in Tibet: findings from a randomised, population based survey. Br J Ophthalmol 87(12), 1443-8, 2003.

  Eusebio C, Kuper H, Polack S, Enconado J, Tongson N, Dionio D, Dumdum A, Limburg H, Foster A. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Negros Island and Antique District, Philippines. British Journal of Ophthalmology 91(12),1588-92, 2007.

  Khandekar R, Mohammed AJ, Negrel AD, Riyami AA. The prevalence and causes of blindness in the Sultanate of Oman: the Oman Eye Study (OES). Br J Ophthalmol 86(9), 957-62, 2002.

  Mathenge W, Nkurikiye J, Limburg H, Kuper H. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Western Rwanda: blindness in a postconflict setting. PLoS Medicine 4(7), e217, July, 2007.

  Mathenge W, Kuper H, Limburg H, Polack S, Onyango O, Nyaga G, Foster A. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Nakuru district, Kenya. Ophthalmology 114 (3), 599-605, 2007.

  Oye JE, Kuper H. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Limbe urban area, South West Province, Cameroon. British Journal of Ophthalmology 91(11), 1435-9, 2007.

  Wadud Z, Kuper H, Polack S, Lindfield R, Akm MR, Choudhury KA, Lindfield T, Limburg H, Foster A. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness and needs assessment of cataract surgical services in Satkhira District, Bangladesh. British Journal of Ophthalmology 90(10), 1225-9, 2006.

  Rabiu, MM. Prevalence of blindness and low vision in north central, Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine 27(4), 238-244, 2008.

  Sherwin JC, Keeffe JE, Kuper H, Islam FM, Muller A, Mathenge W. Functional presbyopia in a rural Kenyan population: the unmet presbyopic need. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 36(7), 699-700, 2008.

  Zainal M, Ismail SM, Ropilah AR, Elias H, Arumugam G, Alias D, Fathilah J, Lim TO, Ding LM, Goh PP. Prevalence of blindness and low vision in Malaysian population: results from the National Eye Survey 1996. Br J Ophthalmol 86(9):951-6, 2002.

BREASTFEEDING

  Boerma JT; Rutstein SO; Sommerfelt AE; Bicego GT. Bottle use for infant feeding in developing countries: data from the demographic and health surveys. Has the bottle battle been lost? Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 37(3):116-20,1991.

CANCER

  Claeys P, Gonzalez C, Gonzalez M, Page H, Bello RE, Temmerman M. Determinants of cervical cancer screening in a poor area: results of a population-based survey in Rivas, Nicaragua. Trop Med Int Health 7(11):935-41, 2002.

CHILD SURVIVAL

  Jain SK, Chawla U, Gupta N, Gupta RS, Venkatesh S, Lal S. Child survival and safe motherhood program in Rajasthan. Indian J Pediatr. 73(1), 43-7, 2006.

CONDOM USE

  Adih WK; Alexander CS. Determinants of condom use to prevent HIV infection among youth in Ghana. Journal of Adolescent Health 24(1):63-72,1999.

DENTAL

David J, Wang NJ, Astrom AN, Kuriakose S. Dental caries and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Int J Paediatr Dent 15(6), 420-8, 2005.

Kularatne S, Ekanayake L. Root surface caries in older individuals from Sri Lanka. Caries Research 41(4), 252-6, 2007.

Mumcu G, Cimilli H, Sur H, Hayran O, Atalay T. Prevalence and distribution of oral lesions: a cross-sectional study in Turkey. Oral Diseases 11(2):81-7, 2005.

DIABETES

  Nagpal J, Bhartia A. Cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with known diabetes from the middle- and high-income group population of Delhi: the DEDICOM survey. Diabetic Medicine 25(1), 27-36, 2008.

  Nyenwe EA, Odia OJ, Ihekwaba AE, Ojule A, Babatunde S. Type 2 diabetes in adult Nigerians: a study of its prevalence and risk factors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 62(3):177-85, 2003.

DIARRHEA

  Biritwum RB, Asante A, Amoo PK, Gyekye AA, Amissah CR, Osei KG, Appiah-Poku YA, Welbeck JE.. Community-based cluster surveys on treatment preferences for diarrhoea, severe diarrhoea, and dysentery in children aged less than five years in two districts of Ghana. J Health Popul Nutr. 22(2),182-9, 2004.

DISASTER

  Bayleyegn T, Wolkin A, Oberst K, Young S, Sanchez C, Phelps A, Schulte J, Rubin C, Batts D. Rapid assessment of the needs and health status in Santa Rosa and Escambia counties, Florida, after Hurricane Ivan, September 2004. Disaster Manag Response. 4(1), 12-8, 2006.

Doocy S, Robinson C, Moodie C, Burnham G. Tsunami-related injury in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Global Public Health 4(2), 205-14, 2009.

DRUG USE

  Tran TN, Detels R, Long HT, Lan HP. Drug use among female sex workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Addiction 100(5): 619-25, 2005.

EVALUATION

  Hossain SM, Duffield A, Taylor A. An evaluation of the impact of a US$60 million nutrition programme in Bangladesh. Health Policy Plan 20(1), 35-40, 2005.

HEPATITIS C

  Davaalkham D, Ojima T, Nymadawa P, Uehara R, Watanabe M, Oki I, Nakamura Y. Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in Mongolian children: Findings from a nationwide survey. J Med Virol. 78(4), 466-472, 2006.

HIV INFECTION

  Benoit SN; Gershy-Damet GM; Coulibaly A; Koffi K; Sangare VS; Koffi D; Houdier R; Josseran R; Guelain J; Aoussi E; et al. Seroprevalence of HIV infection in the general population of the Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 3(12),1193-6, 1990.

Boisier P, Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer ON, Amadou Hamidou A, Sidikou F, Ibrahim ML, Elhaj Mahamane A, Mamadou S, Sanda Aksenenkova T, Hama Modibo B, Chanteau S, Sani A, Louboutin-Croc JP. Nationwide HIV prevalence survey in general population in Niger. Trop Med Int Health. 9(11):1161-6, 2004.

Calleja JM, Marum LH, Carcamo CP, Kaetano L, Muttunga J, Way A. Lessons learned in the conduct, validation, and interpretation of national population based HIV surveys. AIDS 19 Supplement 2, S9-S17, May 2005.

Fontanet AL, Messele T, Dejene A, Enquselassie F, Abebe A, Cutts FT, Rinke de Wit T, Sahlu T, Bindels P, Yeneneh H, Coutinho RA, Nokes DJ. Age- and sex-specific HIV-1 prevalence in the urban community setting of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. AIDS 12(3), 315-22, 1998.

  Fylkesnes K, Ndhlovu Z, Kasumba K, Mubanga Musonda R, Sichone M. Studying dynamics of the HIV epidemic: population-based data compared with sentinel surveillance in Zambia. AIDS 12(10):1227-34, 1998.

  Ma W, Detels R, Feng Y, Wu Z, Shen L, Li Y, Li Z, Chen F, Wang A, Liu T. Acceptance of and barriers to voluntary HIV counselling and testing among adults in Guizhou province, China. AIDS 21 (Suppl 8), S129-35, 2007.

Nguyen NT, Nguyen HT, Trinh HQ, Mills SJ, Detels R. Clients of female sex workers as a bridging population in Vietnam. AIDS Behavior 13(5, 881-9, 2009.

  Rwandan HIV Seroprevalence Study Group. Nationwide community-based serological survey of HIV-1 and other human retrovirus infections in a Central African Country. The Lancet 1(8644), 941-3, 1989.

  Saphonn V, Hor LB, Ly SP, Chhuon S, Saidel T, Detels R. How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia. Int J Epidemiol. 31(2):449-55, 2002.

  Talukdar A, Khandokar MR, Bandopadhyay SK, Detels R. Risk of HIV infection but not other sexually transmitted diseases is lower among homeless Muslim men in Kolkata. AIDS 21(16), 2231-5, 2007.

Tran TM, Nguyen HT, Yatsuya H, Hamajima N, Nishimura A, Ito K. HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among male injection drug users under 30: a cross-sectional study in Long An, Vietnam. BMC Public Health 6, 248-257, 2006.

Tran TN, Detels R, Long HT, Van Phung L, Lan HP. HIV infection and risk characteristics among female sex workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 39(5):581-6, 2005.

HYPERTENSION

  Reyes-Gibby CC, Aday LA. Prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in a rural area of the Philippines. J Community Health 25(5), 389-99, 2000.

IMMUNIZATION

  Balraj V, John TJ. Evaluation of a poliomyelitis immunization campaign in Madras city. Bulletin World Health Organization 64(6), 861-5, 1986.

Coetzee DJ; Ferrinho P; Reinach SG. A vaccination survey using the EPI methodology ot evaluate the impact of a child health outreach programme in an urban area of South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization  71(1), 33-9, 1993.

  Frerichs RR, and Tar Tar K: Use of rapid survey methodology to determine immunization coverage in rural Burma. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 34, 125-130, 1988.

  Goodman KJ, Wu JS, Frerichs RR. Compliance with childhood immunizations in Kern County, California. J Immigr Health 2(4), 213-22, 2000.

  Reichler MR, Darwish A, Stroh G, Stevenson J, Al Nasr MA, Oun SA, Wahdan MH. Cluster survey evaluation of coverage and risk factors for failure to be immunized during the 1995 National Immunization Days in Egypt. Int J Epidemiol 27(6),1083-9,1998.

  Salmaso S, Rota MC, Ciofi Degli Atti ML, Tozzi AE, Kreidl P.  Infant immunization coverage in Italy: estimates by simultaneous EPI cluster surveys of regions. ICONA Study Group. Bull World Health Organ 77(10). 843-51. 1999.

  Shaheen MA, Frerichs RR, Alexopoulos N, Rainey JJ. Immunization coverage among predominantly Hispanic children, aged 2-3 years, in central Los Angeles. Ann Epidemiol 10(3):160-8, 2000.

  Talley L, Salama P. Short report: assessing field vaccine efficacy for measles in famine-affected rural Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68(5), 545-6, 2003.

  Zuber PL, Conombo KS, Traore AD, Millogo JD, Ouattara A, Ouedraogo IB, Valian A. Mass measles vaccination in urban Burkina Faso, 1998. Bull World Health Organ 79(4), 296-300, 2001.

LEPROSY

  Myint T, Htoon MT, Shwe T. Estimation of leprosy prevalence in Bago and Kawa townships using two-stage probability proportionate to size sampling technique. International Journal of Epidemiology 21(4): 778-83, 1992.

MALARIA

Ahmed SM, Haque R, Haque U, Hossain A. Knowledge on the transmission, prevention and treatment of malaria among two endemic populations of Bangladesh and their health-seeking behaviour. Malaria Journal 8, 173-183. 2009.

MALNUTRITION AND NUTRITION-RELATED

Assefa F, Jabarkhil MZ, Salama P, Spiegel P. Malnutrition and mortality in Kohistan District, Afghanistan, April 2001. JAMA 2001 Dec 5;286(21):2723-8.

  Ategbo EA, Sankar R, Schultink W, van der Haar F, Pandav CS. An assessment of progress toward universal salt iodization in Rajasthan, India, using iodine nutrition indicators in school-aged children and pregnant women from the same households. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17(1), 56-62, 2008.

Casey GJ, Phuc TQ, Macgregor L, Montresor A, Mihrshahi S, Thach TD, Tien NT, Biggs BA. A free weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming program is associated with improved hemoglobin and iron status indicators in Vietnamese women. BMC Public Health 9, 261-269, 2009.

Guerrier G, Zounoun M, Delarosa O, Defourny I, Lacharite M, Brown V, Pedalino B.Malnutrition and mortality patterns among internally displaced and non-displaced population living in a camp, a village or a town in Eastern Chad. PLoS One 4(11), e8077, 2009.

Salama P, Assefa F, Talley L, Spiegel P, van Der Veen A, Gotway CA. Malnutrition, measles, mortality, and the humanitarian response during a famine in Ethiopia. JAMA 286(5):563-71, 2001.

Wamani H, Astrom AN, Peterson S, Tumwine JK, Tylleskar T.  Predictors of poor anthropometric status among children under 2 years of age in rural Uganda. Public Health Nutr. 9(3):320-6, 2006.

MATERNAL HEALTH

Mullany LC, Lee CI, Yone L, Paw P, Oo EK, Maung C, Lee TJ, Beyrer C. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma. PLoS Medicine 5(12), 1689-98, 2008.

METHODOLOGY

  Anker M. Epidemiological and statistical methods for rapid health assessment: introduction. World Health Stat Q, 44(3), 94-7, 1991.

  Bennett S, Radalowicz A, Vella V, Tomkins A. A computer simulation of household sampling schemes for health surveys in developing countries. Int J Epidemiol 23(6),1282-91,1994.

  Bennett S, Woods T, Liyanage WM, Smith DL: A simplified general method for cluster-sample surveys of health in developing countries. World Health Statistics Quarterly, 44 (3), 98-106, 1991.

Borgdorff MW, Walker GJ. Estimating vaccination coverage: routine information or sample survey? Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91(1): 35-42, 1988.

  Brogan,D, Flagg, EW, Deming, M, Waldman, R: Increasing the accuracy of the Expanded Programme on Immunization's cluster survey design. Annals of Epidemiology 4(4), 302-311, 1994.

  Donovan RJ, Holman CD, Corti B, Jalleh G. Face-to-face household interviews versus telephone interviews for health surveys. Aust N Z J Public Health 21(2), 134-40, 1997.

  Ferrinho P; Valli A; Groeneveld T; Buch E; Coetzee D. The effects of cluster sampling in an African urban setting. Central African Journal of Medicine 38(8), 324-30, 1992.

  Frerichs RR: Rapid microcomputer surveys. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 34, 147-149, 1988.

  Frerichs RR, and Tar Tar K: Computer-assisted rapid surveys in developing countries. Public Health Reports 104 (1), 14-23, 1989.

  Frerichs RR: Simple analytic procedures for rapid microcomputer-assisted surveys in developing countries. Public Health Reports 104 (1), 24-35, 1989.

  Frerichs RR, Shaheen MA. Small-community-based surveys. Annu Rev Public Health 22, 231-47, 2001.

  Grais RF, Rose AM, Guthmann JP. Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 4(8), 1-7, June 1, 2007.

  Gulliford MC; Ukoumunne OC; Chinn S. Components of variance and intraclass correlations for the design of community-based surveys and intervention studies: data from the Health Survey for England 1994. American Journal of Epidemiology 149(9), 876-83,1999.

  Harris DR, Lemeshow S. Evaluation of the EPI survey methodology for estimating relative risk. World Health Stat Q 44(3), 107-14, 1991.

  Harris DR, Lemeshow S, Lwanga SK, Chin J and Duchesneau R: Evaluation of a standardized survey design for use in epidemiological research on AIDS. International Journal of Epidemiology 20, 1048-1056, 1991.

  Henderson RH et al. Assessment of vaccination coverage, vaccination scar rates, and smallpox scarring in five areas of West Africa. Bull World Health Organ 48(2), 183-194, 1973.

  Henderson RH, Sundaresan T. Cluster sampling to assess immunization coverage: a review of experience with a simplified sampling method. Bull World Health Organ 60(2), 253-60, 1982.

Kaiser R, Woodruff BA, Bilukha O, Spiegel PB, Salama P. Using design effects from previous cluster surveys to guide sample size calculation in emergency settings. Disasters 30(2), 199-211, 2006.

  Katz J. Sample-size implications for population-based cluster surveys of nutritional status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61(1),155-60, 1995.

  Katz J, Yoon SS, Brendel K, West KP Jr. Sampling designs for xerophthalmia prevalence surveys. Int J Epidemiol 26(5), 1041-8, 1997.

  Kok PW. Cluster sampling for immunization coverage. Social Science in Medicine 22 (7), 781-783, 1986.

  Kumar R, Indrayan A. A nomogram for single-stage cluster-sample surveys in a community for estimation of a prevalence rate. Int J Epidemiol 31(2):463-7, 2002.

  Lemeshow S, Robinson D. Surveys to measure programme coverage and impact: a review of the methodology used by the Expanded Programme on Immunization. World Health Statistics Quarterly 38, 65-75,1985.

  Lemeshow S, Tserkovnyi AG, Tulloch JL, Dowd JE, Lwanga SK, Keja J. A computer simulation of the EPI survey strategy. Int J Epidemiol 14(3), 473-81, 1985.

  Levy PS, Lemeshow S. Sampling of Populations: Methods and Applications. 2nd Ed, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, pp. 328-330, 1991.

  Luman ET, Worku A, Berhane Y, Martin R, Cairns L. Comparison of two survey methodologies to assess vaccination coverage. International Journal of Epidemiology 36(3), 633-41, 2007.

  Lwanga SK, Abiprojo N. Immunization coverage surveys: methodological studies in Indonesia. Bull World Health Organ 65(6), 847-53, 1987.

  MacIntyre K. Rapid assessment and sample surveys: trade-offs in precision and cost. Health Policy Plan 14(4), 363-73, 1999.

  Macintyre K, Bilsborrow RE, Olmedo C, Carrasco R. Rapid surveys for program evaluation: design and implementation of an experiment in Ecuador. Rev Panam Salud Publica 6(3),192-201, 1999.

  Malilay J, Flanders WD, Brogan D. A modified cluster-sampling method for post-disaster rapid assessment of needs. Bull World Health Organ 74(4), 399-405,1996.

  Milligan P, Njie A, Bennett S. Comparison of two cluster sampling methods for health surveys in developing countries. International J Epidemiology 33(3), 469-76, 2004.

  Peters TJ, Eachus JI. Achieving equal probability of selection under various random sampling strategies. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 9(2), 219-24. 1995.

  Turner AG, Magnani RJ, Shuaib M. A not quite as quick but much cleaner alternative to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Cluster Survey design. Int J Epidemiol 25(1):198-203, 1996.

  Serfling RE, Sherman lL, Attribute Sampling Methods for Local Health Departments, Publication No. 1230, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, 1965, 178 pp.

  Wang ST, Yu ML, Lin LY. Consequences of analysing complex survey data using inappropriate analysis and software computing packages. Public Health 111(4), 259-62, 1997.

  Yoon SS, Katz J, Brendel K, West KP Jr. Efficiency of EPI cluster sampling for assessing diarrhoea and dysentery prevalence. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 75(5), 417-26, 1997.

MORTALITY

  Coghlan B, Brennan RJ, Ngoy P, Dofara D, Otto B, Clements M, Stewart T. Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a nationwide survey. Lancet 367(9504), 44-51, 2006.

MUSCULOSKELETAL

  Atijosan O, Rischewski D, Simms V, Kuper H, Linganwa B, Nuhi A, Foster A, Lavy C. A national survey of musculoskeletal impairment in Rwanda: prevalence, causes and service implications. PLoS ONE 3(7), e2851, 2008.

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

  Duong CT, Nguyen TH, Hoang TT, Nguyen VV, Do TM, Pham VH, Detels R. Sexual Risk and Bridging Behaviors Among Young People in Hai Phong, Vietnam. AIDS and Behavior 12(4), 643-51, 2008.

  Lertpiriyasuwat C, Plipat T, Jenkins RA. A survey of sexual risk behavior for HIV infection in Nakhonsawan, Thailand, 2001. AIDS 17(13):1969-76, 2003.

  Liu H, Xie J, Wenzhou Y, Weisheng S, Zhanya G, Xhixin M, Detels R. A study of sexual behavior among residents of China. J Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology 19, 80-88, 1998.

SMOKING

  Jindal SK, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Kashyap S, Chaudhary D. Prevalence of tobacco use among school going youth in North Indian States. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 47(3), 161-6, 2005.

  Niraula SR. Tobacco use among women in Dharan, eastern Nepal. J Health Popul Nutr. 22(1), 68-74, 2004.

Singh V, Pal HR, Mehta M, Dwivedi SN, Kapil U. Pattern of tobacco use among school children in National Capital Territory (NCT). Indian Journal of Pediatrics 74(11),1013-20, 2007.

Sinha DN, Gupta PC, Warren CW, Asma S. School policy and tobacco use by students in Bihar, India. Indian J Public Health. 48(3),118-22, 2004.

TUBERCULOSIS

  Al-Akhali A, Ohkado A, Fujiki A, Mitarai S, Yamada N, Masui T, Otomo K, Yamada H, Seita A, Mori T, Al-Absi AN. Nationwide survey on the prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the Republic of Yemen, 2004. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 11(12), 1328-33, 2007.

  Chadha VK, Kumar P, Satyanarayana AV, Chauhan LS, Gupta J, Singh S, Magesh V, Lakshminarayana, Ahmed J, Srivastava R, Suganthi P, Devi GU. Annual risk of tuberculous infection in Andhra Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis 54(4), 177-83, 2007.

TRACHOMA

  Ezz al Arab G, Tawfik N, El Gendy R, Anwar W, Courtright P. The burden of trachoma in the rural Nile Delta of Egypt: a survey of Menofiya governorate. Br J Ophthalmol 85(12):1406-10, 2001.

Faye M, Kuper H, Dineen B, Bailey R. Rapid assessment for prioritisation of trachoma control at community level in one district of the Kaolack Region, Senegal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 100(2), 149-57, 2006.

  Mansur R, Muhammad N, Liman IR. Prevalence and magnitude of trachoma in a local government area of Sokoto State, north western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine16(4), 348-53, 2007.

  Ngondi J, Onsarigo A, Adamu L, Matende I, Baba S, Reacher M, Emerson P, Zingeser J. The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 83(12), 904-12, 2005.

Rabiu MM, Abiose A. Magnitude of trachoma and barriers to uptake of lid surgery in a rural community of northern Nigeria. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 8(2-3):181-90, 2001.

YELLOW FEVER

  Huhn GD, Brown J, Perea W, Berthe A, Otero H, LiBeau G, Maksha N, Sankoh M, Montgomery S, Marfin A, Admassu M. Vaccination coverage survey versus administrative data in the assessment of mass yellow fever immunization in internally displaced persons--Liberia, 2004. Vaccine 24(6), 730-7, 2006.

WARFARE

  Spiegel PB, Salama P. War and mortality in Kosovo, 1998-99: an epidemiological testimony. Lancet 355(9222):2204-9, 2000.