Chapter 9: Epilogue

by R. J. Morris

in Cholera 1832 -- The Social Response to An Epidemic, 1976.


  1. Charles Creighton, A history of epidemics in Great Britain, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1891-4, vol.2, pp.793_862; Sir John Simon, English Sanitary Institutions, London, 1890.

  2. The Greville Memoirs..., vol.11, pp.214 and 284.

  3. Central Board of Health Letter Book, 22 November 1831, P.R.O., P.C.1/93.

  4. Wesleyan Methodist Magazine, vol.55, 1832, p.203.

  5. The Greville Memoirs..., vol.11, p.284; E.M.S.J., vol. 40, 1833, p.177.

  6. Central Board of Health Letter Book, 15 August 1833, P.R.O., P.C.1/93.

  7. Oxford Board of Health Minute Book, 9 September 1832.

  8. W.R. Lee, 'Robert Baker: The First Doctor in the Factory Department', British Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol.21, 1964, pp.85_93; Rev. Charles Girdlestone, Seven Sermons preached during the prevalence of cholera in the parish of Sedgley, London, 1833; 'The Cholera at Sedgley', The Christian Observer, vol.34, 1834, pp.1_16; Frank Smith, The Life of Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth, London, 1923; W.M. Frazer, Duncan of Liverpool, London, 1947, p.49; Edwin Chadwick, Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Population of Great Britain, 1842, edited by M.W. Flinn.

  9. Monthly Journal of Medical Science, vol.9, 1848, p.349.

10. The Christian Remembrancer, vol.19, 1850, pp.164-85 reviewed the Quarterly Returns.. .of the Registrar-General and the Edinburgh Review, vol.96, 1852, pp.403-35 looked at the Report of the General Board of Health on the Epidemic Cholera of 1848 and 1849.

11. Free Church Magazine, vol.5, 1848, p.367; The People's Journal, vol.4, p.344; Cecil Woodham Smith, The Great Hunger, London, pp.266_81.

12. Edinburgh Review, vol.96, 1852, pp.403_35; M.W. Flinn, Introduction to the Chadwick Report..., pp.66_73.

13. Report on the Cholera epidemic of 1866 in England, supplement to the 29th annual report of the Registrar-General..., P.P.(H. of C.) 1867-8, vol.37; Medical Times, 25 December 1847.

14. Medical Times, 11 August, 9 September and 14 October 1848, and 20 January, 23 June and 22 September 1849; Monthly Journal of Medical Science, vol.8, 1849, p.39 3; Once a Week, vol.2, 1868, pp.33_6; Contemporary Review, vol.10, 1869, pp.1 14_21.

15. E.MS.J., vol.72, 1849, p.201; Monthly Journal of Medical Science, vol.9, 1848, p.349; Medical Times, 16 October 1847; W. Bailey and W. Gull, Reports on the Epidemic Cholera drawn up at the desire of the Cholera Committee of the Royal College of Physicians, London, 1854, pp.3-4.

16. E.H. Ackerknecht, 'Anti-contagionism between 1821 and 1867', Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol.22, 1948, p. 580.

17. The Witness, 25 August 1849; Hugh Miller, My Schools and Schoolmasters, Edinburgh, 1878, p.554.

18. Christian Witness, 1849, p.480.

19. The United Presbyterian Magazine, vol.2, 1848, p. 528.

20. Rev. George Biber, Bishop Bloemfield and his times, London, 1857, pp.77-88, 124_41; Alfred Bloemfield, A Memoir of Charles James Bloemfield, D.D., 2 vols., London, 1863, vol.1, p.177 and vol.11, p.113; A pastoral letter to the clergy of the Diocese of London, by Charles James, Bishop of London, London, 1847; Illustrated London News, 17 November 1849.

21. The major debates took place between 10 February and 31 August 1848, when both Bills received the Royal Assent, Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, 3rd series, vol.96 to vol.101, 1848. See also People's Journal, vol.6, 1848, p.213; Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, n.s., vol.16, 1849, pp.1 21-2.

22. R. Lambert, Sir John Simon and English Social Administration, London, 1963, p.71; Edwin Hodder, The life and work of the Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury, London, 1887, p. 417.

23. Hodder, Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury, p.418.

24. Report of the General Board of Health on the epidemic Cholera of 1848 and 1849, appendix A, pp.47-59, and 107-11, Appendix B, pp.130-45, P.P.(H. of C.) 1850, vol.21; 'Seventh Notification with reference to the measures of prevention and relief of cholera adopted in the Metropolis, 18 September 1849', London Gazette, 1849, p.2,859; Times, 26 September 1849.

25. 1849 Report..., p.137; 'Seventh Notification.. .', p.2,863; Medical Times, 23 December 1848.

26. Evidence for the fungous origin of cholera, E.M.S.J., vol.73, 1850, pp.81-118; William Budd, Malignant Cholera: its mode of propagation, London, 1849; E.W. Goodall, William Budd, Bristol, 1936.

27. Edinburgh Medical Journal, vol.8 2, 1855, pp.93-4; Medical Times, 29 October 1853.

28. Medical Times, 1 October 1853.

29. John Snow, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, 1st edition, London, 1849; Times, 9 August 1849; Wade Hampton Frost, 'Introduction to John Snow', On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, reprint of the 2nd edition, New York, 1936.

30. John Snow, Communication of Cholera, 2nd edition, p.75.

31. Medical Times, 30 September 1854.

32. John Snow, Communication of Cholera, 2nd edition, p.88.

33. Medical Times, 23 September 1854; John Snow, Communication of Cholera, pp.39-54 Report on the Cholera outbreak in the parish of St James, Westminster during the autumn of 1854, presented to the vestry by the Cholera Inquiry Committee, July 1855, London, 1855; Rev. H.D. Rawnsley, Henry Whitehead, 1825-1896, Glasgow, 1898, pp. 29-42 and 206; G. Kitson Clark, Churchmen and the condition of England, London, 1973.

34. John Snow, Communication of Cholera, 1st edition, p.30.

35. Report of the Committee for Scientific Enquiries in relation to the Cholera Epidemic of 1854: General Board of Health (Medical Council). P.P.(H. of C.), 1854-5, vol. 21; A.H. Abou-Gareeb, 'Koch's contribution to cholera', Journal of the Indian Medical Association, vol. 46, 1966, pp.543-9.

36. Journal of Public Health, vol.2, 1856, p.192; R. Lambert, Sir John Simon, p. 51; H.W. Acland, Memoir of the Cholera at Oxford in the year 1854, Oxford, 1856, p. 46.

37. Report on the Cholera epidemic of 1866...; Medical Times and Gazette, 8 September 1866.