The articles and occasional book chapters cited here are in PDF format, requiring an Adobe reader.

Thornton, J.L. John Snow, pioneer specialist-anaesthetist. Anaesthesia. 5(3),129-35, 1950.

Richardson, B.W. John Snow, M.D., a representative of medical science and art of the Victorian era. British Journal of Anaesthesia 24(4), 267-91, 1952 (reprinted from The Asclepiad of 1866).

Snow, John. On the inhalation of the vapour of ether in surgical operations. British Journal of Anaesthesia 25(1), 53-67 [part 1], 25(2) 162-169 [part 2], 25(3) 253-267 [part 3], 25(4) 349-382 [part 4], 1953.

Part 1 (pp. 53-67)

Part 2 (pp. 162-169)

Part 3 (pp. 253-267)

Part 4 (pp. 349-382)

Annotations. A Snow centenary. The Lancet 268, 1113-1114, 1955.

Mackintosh, J.M. Snow -- the man and his times. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 48, 1004-1007, 1955.

Fulton, J.F. John Snow - Epidemiologist. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences October, 428-429, 1955.

Hill, A. B.  Snow -- An appreciation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 48, 1008-1012, 1955.

Bergman, N.A. The legacy of John Snow -- An Appreciation of His Life and Scientific Contributions on the 100th Anniversary of His Death. Anesthesiology 19(1), 595-606, 1958.

Edwards, G. John Snow's London associations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 51(10), 831-4, 1958.

Davison, M.H. John Snow and the enlightenment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 51(10), 834-5, 1958.

Edwards, G. John Snow, M. D.; 1813-1858. Anaesthesia 14(2), 113-26, 1959.

Couvrier, R. and Edwards, G. John Snow and the Institute of France. Medical History 3(3), 249-251, 1959.

Brown, P.E. John Snow--the autumn loiterer. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 35, 519-28, 1961.

Editorial. John Snow. JAMA 188, 462-3, 1964.

Brown, P.E. Another look at John Snow. Anesthesia and Analgesia 43, 646-54, 1964

Fraser, I. John Snow and his surgical friends. Anaesthesia 23(4), 501-13,1968.

Cohen, Rt. Honorable Lord. John Snow--"the autumn loiterer"? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 62(1), 99-106, 1969.

Macintosh, R.R. The graves of John Snow and Joseph Thomas Clover. Anaesthesia 24(2), 269-70, 1969.

Keys T.E. John Snow. Anesthesia and Analgesia 51(1), 134, 1972.

Robens, Lord of Woldingham. The fourteenth John Snow Memorial Lecture. Anaesthesia 28(2), 170-5, 1973.

Howat, D.D. The "John Snow". Anaesthesia 28(4), 430-4, 1973.

Weller, R.M. Death in Bristol. An exchange of views between Augustin Prichard and John Snow. Anaesthesia 31(1), 90-6, 1976.

Terris, M. Presentation of the first John Snow Award to Abraham M. Lilienfeld. American Journal of Epidemiology 103(5), 423-7, 1976.

Winterton, W.R. The Soho cholera epidemic of 1854. History of Medicine 8(2), 11-20, 1980.

Smith, C.E. The Broad Street pump revisited. International Journal of Epidemiology 11(2), 99-100, 1982.

Cameron D and Jones I G.  John Snow, the Broad Street Pump and Modern Epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology 12(4), 393-396, 1983.

Lilienfeld AM, Lilienfeld DE. John Snow, the Broad Street pump and modern epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology 13(3), 376-7, 1984

Authors' response. Cameron D and Jones I G. International Journal of Epidemiology 13(3), 377-8, 1984.

Leaman A. John Snow MD -- his early days. Anaesthesia 39(8), 803-5, 1984.

Classics in infectious diseases. On continuous molecular changes, more particularly in their relation to epidemic diseases. By John Snow (1813-1858). Review of Infectious Diseases 7(3), 441-7, 1985.

Vandenbroucke JP. Which John Snow should set the example for clinical epidemiology? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 41(12), 1215-6, 1988.

Shephard DA. The work of John Snow, M.D. (1813-1858): a re-evaluation. XXXI Congresso Internazionale di Storia della Medicina, Actes Proceedings Atti, 1011-1018, Bologna, Italy, 30 Agosto - 4 Settembre, 1988.

Shephard DA. John Snow and research. Canadian Journal of  Anaesthesia 36(2), 224-41, 1989.

Vandenbroucke JP, Eelkman Rooda HM, Beukers H. Who made John Snow a hero? American Journal of Epidemiology 133(10), 967-73, 1991.

Krieger N. Re: "Who made John Snow a hero?" American Journal of Epidemiology 135(4), 450-1, 1992.

Dunn FL.Re: "Who made John Snow a hero?" American Journal of Epidemiology 135(4), 451, 1992.

Brunskill AJ. Re: "Who made John Snow a hero?"  American Journal of Epidemiology 135(4), 451-2, 1992.

First author's response. Vandenbroucke JP. Re: "Who made John Snow a hero?"  American Journal of Epidemiology 135(4), 453, 1992.

Zuck D. Charles Empson. An expanded version of a talk delivered at a joint meeting of the History of Anaesthesia Society and the Section of Anaesthetics of the Royal Society of Medicine, March 6, 1993; subsequently published in the History of Anaesthesia Society 12, 56-62, 1993.

Zuck D. Charles Empson -- A man of mystery. History of Anaesthesia Society 12, 56-62, 1993.

Winkelstein W Jr. A new perspective on John Snow's communicable disease theory. American Journal of Epidemiology 142(9 Suppl), S3-9, 1995.

Vandenbroucke JP. Re: "A new perspective on John Snow's communicable disease theory". American Journal of Epidemiology 146(4), 363-4, 1997.

Dunn PM. Dr John Snow (1813-58) of London: pioneer of obstetric anaesthesia. Archives of Diseases in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition 75(2), F141-2, 1996.

Tanihara S, Morioka S, Kodama K, Hashimoto T, Yanagawa H, Holland WW. Snow on cholera--the special lecture in the Second British Epidemiology and Public Health Course at Kansai Systems Laboratory on 24 August 1996. Journal of Epidemiology 8(4), 185-94. 1998.

Paneth N., Vinten-Johansen, P., Brody, H. and Rip, M. A rivalry of foulness: official and unofficial investigations of the London cholera epidemic of 1854. American Journal of Public Health 88(10), 1545-1553, October 1998.

Brody H, Vinten-Johansen P, Paneth N, Rip MR. John Snow revisited: getting a handle on the Broad Street pump.
Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society 62(1), 2-8, 1999.

Erratum in: Pharos 1999 Summer;62(3):55.

Roberts, S. John Snow (1813-1858) and Benjamin Ward Richardson (1828-1896): a notable friendship. Journal of Medical Biography 7(1), 42-9, 1999.

Galbraith, N Spence. William Hardcastle (1794-1860) of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and his pupil John Snow. Archæologia Æliana (The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne) 27, 155-170, 1999.

Caton, D. John Snow's practice of obstetric anesthesia. Anesthesiology 92(1), 247-52, January 2000.

Snow, S. J.  John Snow MD (1813-1858). Part I: A Yorkshire childhood and family life.  Journal of Medical Biography 8(1), 27-31, February 2000.

Snow, S. J.  John Snow MD (1813-1858). Part II: Becoming a doctor -- his medical training and early years of practice. Journal of Medical Biography 8(2), 71-77, May 2000.

McLeod, K.S.  Our sense of Snow: the myth of John Snow in medical geography. Social Science and Medicine 50(7-8), 923-935, July 2000.

Lillienfeld, D.E. John Snow: The First Hired Gun? American Journal of Epidemiology 152(1), 4-9, July 2000.

Vandenbroucke, J.P. Invited commentary: the testimony of Dr. Snow. American Journal of Epidemiology152(1):10-2, 2000.

Zuck, D. Snow, Empson and the Barkers of Bath. Anaesthesia 56(3), 227-230, March 2001.

Eyler, J.M. The changing assessments of John Snow's and William Farr's cholera. Sozial und Präventivmedizin 46 (4), 225-32, 2001.

Shephard, D.A.E. and Baskett, T.F. John Snow and Resuscitation. Resuscitation 49(1), 3-7, April 2001.

Vandenbroucke, J.P. Changing images of John Snow in the history of epidemiology. Sozial und Praeventivmedizin 46(5), 288-293, 2001.

Halliday S. William Farr, The Lancet, and epidemic cholera. Medical Science Monitor 8(6), LE18-9, 2002.

Froggatt, P. John Snow, Thomas Wakley, and The Lancet. Anaesthesia 57(7), 667-675, July 2002.

Snow, S.J. Sutherland, Snow and water: the transmission of cholera in the nineteenth century. International Journal of Epidemiology 31(5), 908-911, October 2002.

Smith, G.D. Behind the broad street pump: aetiology, epidemiology and prevention of cholera in mid-19th century Britain. International Journal of Epidemiology 31(5), 920-932, October 2002.

Stanwell-Smith, R. The making of an epidemiologist: John Snow before the episode of the Broad Street pump. Communicable Disease and Public Health 5(4), 269-270, December 2002.

Snow, John. On the adulteration of bread a cause of rickets. First Published in The Lancet ii, 4-5, 1857. International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 336-337, 2003. Reflections: Hardy, Anne. Commentary: Bread and alum, syphilis and sunlight: rickets in the nineteenth century. International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 337-340, 2003. Dunnigan, M. Commentary: John Snow and alum-inducted rickets from adulterated London bread: an overlooked contribution to metabolic bone disease. International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 340-341, 2003. Paneth, Nigel. Commentary: Snow on rickets. International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 341-343, 2003.

Collins, C.H. John Snow -- 'On the mode of communication of cholera.' Medical Sciences History 19, 12-19, 2003.

Zuck D. An intimate view of Charles Empson and John Snow. Proceedings of the History of Anaesthesia Society 33, 35-38, 2003.

Stanwell-Smith, R. Cholera, chloroform, and the science of medicine: a life of John Snow (book review). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96(12), 612-613, 2003.

Zuck, D. John Snow and anaesthesia (letter to the editor, response to Stanwell-Smith). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 97(3), 153-4, 2004

Barker, G. John Snow and St. George's (letter to the editor, response to Stanwell-Smith). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 97(3), 154, 2004.

Carvalho, F.M., Lima, F. and Kriebel, D. RE: On John Snow's unquestioned long division (letter to the editor). American Journal of Epidemiology 159, 422, 2004.

Koch, T. and Denike, K. Medical mapping: the revolution in teaching -- and using -- maps for the analysis of medical issues. Journal of Geography 103, 67-85, 2004.

Editor. The catastrophic failures of public health. The Lancet 363, 745, March 6, 2004.

McDermott, R. The catastrophic failures of pubic health (letter to the editor). The Lancet 363, 1551, May 8, 2004.

Arah, O.A. The catastrophic failures of pubic health (letter to the editor). The Lancet 363, 1551-2, May 8, 2004.

Pharoah, P. The catastrophic failures of pubic health (letter to the editor). The Lancet 363, 1552, May 8, 2004.

Kusnanto, H. The catastrophic failures of pubic health (letter to the editor). The Lancet 363, 1552, May 8, 2004.

Paneth, N. Assessing the contributions of John Snow to epidemiology: 150 years after removal of the broad street pump handle. Epidemiology 15(5):514-6, 2004. 

Rothman, K.J. My interview with John Snow. Epidemiology 15(5): 640-4, 2004.

Bingham, P., Verlander, N.Q. and Cheal, M.J. John Snow, William Farr and the 1849 outbreak of cholera that affected London: a reworking of the data highlights the importance of the water supply. Public Health 118(6), 387-94, 2004. 

CDC. 150th Anniversary of John Snow and the pump handle. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(34), 783, September 3, 2004.

Buechner, J.S., Constantine, H., and Gjelsvik, A. John Snow and the Broad Street pump: 150 years of epidemiology. Medicine and Health, Rhode Island 87(10), 314-5, 2004 (equivalent article).

Koch, T. The map as intent: variations on the theme of John Snow. Cartographica 39(4), 1-14, 2004.

Gilbert, P.K. Mapping the Victorian Social Body. Chapt. 3, Invisible to the Naked Eye, pp. 55-79, State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, 2004.

Shrimpton, V. One family's small unrecorded role in reforming the Victorian public health system. J West Surrey Family History Society 31(4), March 2005 (equivalent article).

McCrory, P. Aqua vita. British J Sports Medicine 39, 63, 2005.

Koch, T. Chapters 4-6 (John Snow: The London Epidemic; The cholera debate; Map as intent: Variations on John Snow) in Cartographies of Disease -- Maps, Mapping, and Medicine, ESRI Press, Redlands, California 2005 (website link).

Ramsay, M.A.E. John Snow, MD: An aesthetist to the Queen of England and pioneer epidemiologist. Baylor University Medical Care Proceedings 19(1), 24-28, 2006.

  Koch, T. and Denike, K. Rethinking John Snow's South London study: A Bayesian evaluation and recalculation. Social Science and Medicine 63(1), 271-83, 2006.

  Newsom, S.W. Pioneers in infection control: John Snow, Henry Whitehead, the Broad Street pump, and the beginnings of geographical epidemiology. Journal of Hospital Infection 64(3), 210-216, 2006.

 Cerda, L. J. and Valdivia, C. G. John Snow, the cholera epidemic and the foundation of modern epidemiology [Article in Spanish], Revista Chilena de Infectología 24(4), 331-4, 2007.

  Blair, J. S. Dr John Snow. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 153(2), 136-7, 2007.

  Ellis, H. John Snow: early anaesthetist and pioneer of public health. British Journal of Hospital Medicine 69(2), 113, 2008.

  Koch, T. John Snow, hero of cholera: RIP. CMAJ 178(13), 1736, 2008. .

 Snow, S.J. John Snow: the making of a hero? The Lancet 372, 22-23, 2008.

 Oleckno, W.A. Remembering Dr. John Snow on the sesquicentennial of his death. CMAJ 178(13), 1691-1692, 2008.

 Mawson, A.R. The hands of John Snow: clue to his untimely death? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 63(6), 497-499, 2009.

  Koch, T. and Denike, K. Essential, illustrative, or... just propaganda? Rethinking John Snow's Broad Street Map. Cartographica 45(1), 19-31, 2010.

Grushkin, D. John Snow's "grand experiment," 1855. The Scientist 24(8), 74, 2010.

Bause, GS. Belskie's 1971 Medallion of John Snow. Anesthesiology 115(1), 135, 2011.

 Tulodziecki, D.  A case study in explanatory power: John Snow’s conclusions about the pathology and transmission of cholera.  Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42(3), 306-316, 2011.

Goldstein, B.D. John Snow, the Broad Street pump and the precautionary principle. Environmental Development 1, 3-9, 2012.

Tulodziecki, D. Principles of reasoning in historical epidemiology. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18, 968-973, 2012.

Ferrie, JE. Cholera, John Snow and the 2013 bicentennial meetings at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. International Journal of Epidemiology 41, 1501-1502, 2012.

Morens, DM. Commentary: Cholera conundrums and proto-epidemiologic puzzles. The confusing epidemic world of John Lea and John Snow. International Journal of Epidemiology 42, 43-52, 2013.

Paneth N and Fine P. The singular science of John Snow. The Lancet 381, 1267-8, 2013. 2013.

Hempel, S. John Snow - Obituary. The Lancet 381, 1269-1270, 2013.

Fine P, Victora CG, Rothman KJ, More PS, Chang Y et al. John Snow's legacy: epidemiology without borders. The Lancet 381, 1302-1311, 2013.

Stanwell-Smith, R. The remarkable Dr John Snow. Perspectives in Public Health 133(5), 237, 2013.

Ryan, ET. Eyes on the prize: lessons from the cholera wars for modern scientists, physicians and public health officials. American J Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89(4), 610-614, 2013.

Lippi D, Gotuzzo E. The greatest steps towards the discovery of Vibrio cholerae.
Clinical Microbiology and Infections, Sep 12, 2013 [Epub ahead of print].

Parkes E. Mode of Communication of Cholera. By John Snow, MD: Second Edition - London, 1855, pp. International Journal of Epidemiology 42(6), 1543-1552, 2013.

Koch T. Commentary: Nobody loves a critic: Edmund A Parkes and John Snow's cholera.
International Journal of Epidemiology 42(6), 1553-1559, 2013.

Eyler J. Commentary: Confronting unexpected results: Edmund Parkes reviews John Snow. International Journal of Epidemiology 42(6), 1559-1562, 2013.

Bergman BP. Commentary: Edmund Alexander Parkes, John Snow and the miasma controversy. International Journal of Epidemiology 42(6), 1562-1565, 2013.

Paneth N. Commentary: Two views of cholera. International Journal of Epidemiology 42(6), 1565-1566, 2013.

Ganczak M. John Snow and cholera--the bicentenary of birth. Przeglaad Epidemiologiczny 68(1), 89-92, 2014.

Lippi D and Gotuzzo E. The greatest steps towards the discovery of Vibrio cholerae. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 20(3), 191-5, 2014.

Cicak, Tessa and Nicola Tynan. Mapping London's Water Companies and Cholera Deaths. The London Journal 41 (1), 21-32, 2015.

click to return to the John Snow site